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Because of the complicated nature of compliance under these laws, full coverage of the types of compliance needed for aerospace companies is not possible within the space of this article. Bill Click, sales engineer for CEi, says, “Building with carbon fiber means our airframes can execute and withstand more highly dynamic maneuvers than other targets built with metal airframes.”. With NCSIMUL Machine we can anticipate all this securely in the virtual environment before taking a chance on reality.”, Today’s multi-purpose NC machines are increasingly complex, so even though other CAM software comes with rendering capabilities, NCSIMUL Machine’s simulation facilitates development of machine post-processors. Times have changed. “At the time we went for the better of the two products,” he explains. “It was the right choice because the solution is very integrated into our specialty, spanning the whole machining process for our compressors, from CAM to the actual cutting of end parts on the machine. These are indicative of the many design challenges at the higher levels of complexity shared by HMIs. Although the placement of these items on the EAR may open up new sales opportunities, from a compliance perspective these standards differ little from those required under the ITAR. And it’s all done in the name of reducing the cost of aerospace manufacture, improving fuel economy through efficiency and lightweighting, and making air travel a more cost-effective means of transportation. OFAC licenses often are issued with annual reporting obligations and sharp restrictions on how payments can be accomplished for licensed activity. Increasingly, there’s also a need to fit the most effective HMI within extremely limited space on smaller products. Under them, any transfer of goods to someone other than a U.S. citizen or permanent resident is deemed to be an export to that individual’s home country, even if the technical data is physically located in the United States. “Our task is complex,” Cazenave-Laroche says. Launched from a catapult, the target, painted bright red for visibility, was controlled by a ground-based pilot. Meanwhile, for engine parts and critical components, there is a simultaneous push for lower weight and higher temperature resistance for better fuel efficiency, bringing new or previously impractical-to-machine metals into the aerospace material mix. HMIs are used throughout the defense industries, whether shipboard, airborne, or ground-based mobile applications, such as hand-held computers, high-resolution monitors, and secure voice/data communications devices. As part of an effort designed to “build higher walls around fewer items,” the export control authorities have engaged in a top-to-bottom rewrite of the ITAR and the EAR. Aerospace applications range from cockpit controls and displays, to cabin-environment controls, to in-flight entertainment systems. With these issues in mind, aerospace companies should carefully monitor the export controls implications associated with their new production paradigms. With its robust processes, NCSIMUL Solutions makes all this possible. Companies with licenses outstanding need to designate a person who is in charge of monitoring the operation of the licenses and complying with any conditions attached to them. The original need for titanium arose from the development of supersonic aircraft capable of speeds in excess of Mach 2. “You’ve got to have the right interface for the right application,” says Hemant Mistry, president of Jayco mmi (man-machine interface), Corona, Calif. “HMIs for defense and aerospace applications must be designed to improve cognition and comprehension to enable rapid decision making. With 80,000ft2 of manufacturing space in Sacramento, Calif., CEi possesses the engineering, manufacturing, and management capabilities required for the design, prototyping, testing, production, maintenance, and operational support of its family of aerial target systems. Recovery is made via a two-stage drogue parachute system. Effectively designed HMIs have made vital contributions to the successes of countless products across the spectrum of industries ranging from the most sought-after consumer products to advanced military and aerospace equipment. It can carry these payloads in multiple configurations, including up to 40 lb carried internally, 10 lb on each wingtip, and 30 lb on either wing station. HMIs can be viewed as an integral part of the product itself, but the design and manufacture of the interface is often a separate, specialized process that involves high levels of complexity – both human and technological. A century later, aerospace engineering is infinitely more advanced: the product of years of research and millions of dollars of investment. Al-Li alloys’ high strength, low density, high stiffness, damage tolerance, corrosion resistance, and weld-friendly nature make it a better choice than traditional aluminums in commercial jetliner airframes. Our goal is the same as for any manufacturer; namely, to constantly cut costs and improve quality and productivity. The dangers are particularly great with regard to technical data, which can become mixed with normal corporate data if it is not identified at the outset as information that needs to be segregated. Nicknamed triple 5-3, this has been a notoriously difficult material to machine – until recently. Start studying Chapter 2: Aerospace materials: past, present and future. They reduce weight and increase fuel efficiency while being easy to handle, design, shape, and repair. Learning this system has become an obligation for Turbomeca’s teams. New materials address a new aerospace reality. But TiAl is more easily machined, exhibiting similar machinability characteristics to alpha-beta titanium, such as Ti6Al4V. Editor's choice: Training today’s elite pilots with agile, high-performance unmanned vehicles. “We have worked successfully with Jayco for a number of years, and their preliminary design consultation has been very helpful in keeping us on the right track as far as planning and implementing the HMIs for our products,” Heinzig explains. Such contact can occur in both a regulatory and a procurement context. The Radioplane Corp. is famous for more than just drones. What is required is a thorough understanding of the application, an understanding of the environment that the product is going to be used in, and the technologies that are available to achieve the end.”. Because of the difference in how controlled items (generally not exportable unless a license is secured, particularly under the ITAR) and non-controlled items (generally exportable to most countries) are treated, no export controls compliance policy can be effective unless the company has conducted a thorough classification review. Longer machining times are required for each component, and more time per part makes scrap relatively expensive, when factoring in time investment. A final risk is a company’s tendency to focus its attention on U.S. operations while neglecting the foreign operations that may still present relevant risks. Composite Engineering Inc. A variation of this trend exists in metallic structures, as more components are conditioned in forgings to get to near-net shape, reducing the amount of machining. “The best HMIs are actually simple and intuitive,” he adds. Many aerospace companies have warned that the application of strict export controls is driving manufacturing offshore, as non-U.S. companies take advantage of being outside the direct oversight of U.S. regulators. 2 Aerospace materials: past, present and future 2.1 Introduction The development of new materials and better utilisation of existing materials has been central to the advancement of aerospace engineering. This need is especially pronounced in the areas of export controls and the FCPA, where educating the workforce regarding potentially suspect situations is one of the best risk-management tools. The Firejet’s launch system – suitable for ground or shipboard launch – is also adaptable to existing pneumatic launch systems. Heinzig adds that finding room for the HMI controls on the product often requires creativity and a bit of finesse: “It is often necessary to place the controls on the periphery of the product, and that requires advanced planning.” Virtual prototyping aids in the process and shows exactly what is possible. Key issues to evaluate include the types of products sold (with sales of controlled goods increasing risk), the ways in which the organization conducts business (with the use of distributors and third parties increasing risk), and the countries where it sells and operates (with countries with a reputation for corruption or export diversion increasing risk). Once new compliance measures and internal controls are implemented, the necessary next step is to determine whether the new procedures are being implemented as envisioned. Use of such equipment to make ITAR- or EAR-controlled articles or goods would also directly implicate export control requirements. The application of the FCPA remains a problem for any company operating abroad, but its bite is particularly hard for aerospace companies that frequently deal with government officials. As the glider drifted earthward, the plane’s pilot could make several gunnery passes against it. But the reappearing aluminum is not your father’s aluminum. The modular design allows technicians to replace both turbojet engines by removing only two bolts and a quick-disconnect wire harness. Celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing and the 30th anniversary of Ohio Aerospace Institute with thoughtful perspectives on the past, present, and future of commercial and defense aviation and cyber security. The difficulties of complying with the ITAR and the EAR are complicated by the coverage of technical data that relates to the development, manufacture, maintenance, and service of controlled defense articles and dual-use goods. In 2011, U.K.-based BAE Systems PLC agreed to pay a $400 million penalty for ITAR and FCPA violations. Rather, they are new to practical production application, as machine tools, tooling technology, and insert coatings have sufficiently advanced to tackle difficult-to-machine alloys. One thing to remember is that conducting a risk assessment can lead to the discovery of potential regulatory violations. Under both the ITAR and the EAR, the release of controlled technical data to a non-U.S. national is “deemed” an export. Airbus is currently using AA2050. Other factors that bear on a company’s risk profile include its compliance history, the potential application of local law, the industry at issue, and whether it appears to be a target of U.S. government enforcement action. In June 1941, the company Denny founded, Radioplane, started producing the RP-5A aerial target drone, designated as the OQ-2 by the U.S. Army and TDD-1 by the U.S. Navy. Like CFRPs, they can be molded to certain shapes without any extra machining, making them ideal for internal aerospace engine components, exhaust systems, and other “hot-zone” structures – even replacing the latest in HRSA metals listed earlier. Yet the deemed-export rule requires organizations pay equal attention to both. Even state-of-the-art compliance measures can grow stale in light of changing products, production, and sales – or with new regulations and enforcement trends. The application of U.S. export controls to aerospace companies has a long and contentious history. When such violations occur, it can be difficult to convince regulators that the U.S. company was not involved in the conduct at issue or should not, at a minimum, be considered to have knowledge because it did not exercise sufficient oversight over the arrangement or conduct enough due diligence. Perhaps more importantly, TiAl has the potential to improve the thrust-to-weight ratio in aircraft engines because it’s only half the weight of nickel alloys. In Introduction to Aerospace Materials, 2012. All of these compliance difficulties are multiplied due to the global nature of the aerospace industry. “The trend today is that products have to be smaller, lighter, and use less power,” says Heinzig. The mix of materials in aerospace will continue to change in coming years with composites, freshly machineable metals, and new metals increasingly occupying the space of traditional materials. It jurisdiction abroad also been compromised by user-unfriendly interfaces explore new, more efficient machining ”! Improve cost and performance high-subsonic, sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missile, the is., machining simulation and NCSIMUL machine are operational throughout the compressor production process than just drones the teams! 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