sunflower plant

The family name is derived from the genus Aster and refers to the star-shaped flower head of its members, epitomized well by the daisy. The following are cultivars of sunflowers (those marked .mw-parser-output span.smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}.mw-parser-output span.smallcaps-smaller{font-size:85%}agm have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit):-[23]. Sunflower hulls and sunflower screenings. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sunflowers also produce latex, and are the subject of experiments to improve their suitability as an alternative crop for producing hypoallergenic rubber. However, as the flower bud matures and blossoms, the stem stiffens and the flower head becomes fixed facing the eastward direction.". Antonova, TS. Frequently, in the southern regions, sunflowers are grown in the beginning of rainy seasons, and soybeans can then be planted in the summer. Native American people grew sunflowers as a crop from Mexico to Southern Canada. [9] This is expressed in polar coordinates, where θ is the angle, r is the radius or distance from the center, and n is the index number of the floret and c is a constant scaling factor. [21][22], Seed dehulled (left) and with hull (right), Sunflowers are grown as ornamentals in a domestic setting. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. The attractive heads of flowers are 7.5–15 cm wide in wild specimens and often 30 cm or more in cultivated types. Sunflower meal. The common names "sunflower" and "common sunflower" typically refer to the popular annual species Helianthus annuus, whose round flower heads in combination with the ligules look like the sun. Fish and Wildlife Service Issues Final Rule Protecting Three Flowers", "Geogebra: Sunflowers are irrationally pretty", "Environmental analysis of sunflower production with different forms of mineral nitrogen fertilizers", "Life-cycle assessment of the soybean-sunflower production system in the Brazilian Cerrado", "Major producer countries of sunflower seed, 2018/2019",, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 14 October 2020, at 14:56. A model for the pattern of florets in the head of a sunflower was proposed by H. Vogel in 1979. The oil is also used in soap and paints and as a lubricant. They were first domesticated in what is now Mexico and the Southern United States. [39], Hybrid male sterile and male fertile flowers that display heterogeneity have a low crossover of honeybee visitation. [21], "Sunflower" and "Sunflowers" redirect here. In today's market, most of the sunflower seeds provided or grown by farmers are hybrids. Young flowers reorient overnight to face east in anticipation of the morning. In commercial planting, seeds are planted 45 cm (1.48 ft) apart and 2.5 cm (0.98 in) deep. Further, the florets of a sunflower are arranged in a natural spiral.[15]. "[37] The uniform alignment of sunflower heads in a field might give some people the false impression that the flowers are tracking the Sun. Origin of Extant Domesticated Sunflowers in Eastern North America. A range of sunflower varieties exist with differing fatty acid compositions; some "high-oleic" types contain a higher level of monounsaturated fats in their oil than even olive oil. The current method has been shown to have positive environmental impacts. Several ornamental cultivars of H. annuus have red-colored ray florets; all of them stem from a single original mutant. Pelczar, Rita. [16] The hulls resulting from the dehulling of the seeds before oil extraction can also be fed to domestic animals. However, for commercial farmers growing commodity crops other than sunflowers, the wild sunflower, like any other unwanted plant, is often considered a weed. Some species also have additional shorter scales in the pappus, and one species lacks a pappus entirely. In 1510 early Spanish explorers encountered the sunflower in the Americas and carried its seeds back to Europe. [9], Sunflowers originate in the Americas. These cultivars are less attractive to gardeners growing the flowers as ornamental plants, but appeal to farmers, because they reduce bird damage and losses from some plant diseases. Most of the perennials have disk flowers that are entirely yellow, but a few have disk flowers with reddish lobes. [47] In the early 19th century it was first commercialized in the village of Alexeyevka in Voronezh Governorate by the merchant named Daniil Bokaryov, who developed a technology suitable for its large-scale extraction, and quickly spread around. Sunflower oil cake is used for stock and poultry feeding. It is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. They grow to 1.8 m (6 ft) and are primarily found in woodlands, adjacent to creeks and moist, prairie-like areas. Sunflowers do best when they are grown in direct sunlight and well-drained, yet evenly moist soil. [19], There are many species recognized in the genus:[21][22], The following species were previously included in the genus Helianthus. [45] Of the four plants known to have been domesticated in eastern North America[46] and to have become important agricultural commodities, the sunflower is currently the most economically important. ", This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 04:15. [12] During growth, sunflowers tilt during the day to face the sun but stop once they begin blooming. [3][4][5] This pattern produces the most efficient packing of seeds mathematically possible within the flower head.[6][7][8]. Sunflower, (genus Helianthus), genus of nearly 70 species of herbaceous plants of the aster family (Asteraceae). Sunflowers are usually planted in the extreme southern or northern regions of the country. The common sunflower is valuable from an economic as well as from an ornamental point of view. The leaves are used as fodder, the flowers yield a yellow dye, and the seeds contain oil and are used for food. The seeds may be eaten dried, roasted, or ground into nut butter and are common in birdseed mixes. The family Asteraceae, to which Helianthus belongs, is known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family. The earliest known examples in the United States of a fully domesticated sunflower have been found in Tennessee, and date to around 2300 BC.

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